Some employers, if they recognize the reason you quit as valid, won’t fight you when it comes to receiving unemployment. Others may choose to state you are not eligible for unemployment benefits because you quit. Generally, when there is disagreement between the employer and employee over whether the employee is eligible for unemployment benefits, this is resolved through a hearing.
In most cases, unless the matter is strongly contentious, you can represent yourself at such a hearing and can depend on the fairness of the judge to decide. If an employer is being particularly difficult, and you quit under hostile work conditions, later planning to sue the company, you should consider having an attorney represent you at the hearing. Evidence at the hearing may be important to a later lawsuit.
Sometimes the matter of dispute at a hearing is whether an employee actually quit or was fired. An employer may try to get you to quit, but you should not agree to this. Nor should you sign anything stating that you quit your job on your way out the door. An employer wishing you to quit could have resorted to shortening your work hours, reducing your pay or benefits, creating a hostile work environment, which results in you being eligible for unemployment benefits even if you did quit. In other circumstances it may come down to a he said/she said hearing.
If you have been fired, you should immediately inform other coworkers of this decision, so you have backup. Do not sign anything without reading it through. It must be clear in a hearing that you did not agree to leave your job. You can refuse to sign anything if an employer fires you, since they are no longer your employer. This can help clarify the issue in a hearing if an employer truly has fired you.